W.E.B. CEDAW/C/CHL/CO/7 (2018);Â Fiji, UN Doc. CEDAW/C/SAU/CO/3-4 (2018);Â Suriname, UN Doc.Â CEDAW/C/SUR/CO/4-6 (2018);Â Guatemala, U.N. Doc. Government agencies have dragged state employees who support womenâs rights protests or collaborate with womenâs rights groups before disciplinary hearings and threatened their jobs. The Act on Family Planning, the Protection of the Human Fetus, and the Conditions of Admissibility of Abortion of 1993 (1993 Family Planning Act) permits abortion only in cases of severe anomaly that threatens the fetusâs life, threat to the life or health of the pregnant woman, or pregnancy as a result of illegal acts such as rape or incest. âThe climate of our whole country is such that, if you do something against [those in] power, [those in] power will destroy you,â she said.  CEDAW Committee, General Recommendation No.  European Commission, âPoland,â Education and Training Monitor 2017: Country Analysis, European Union: Luxembourg, 2017, http://www.ressources-de-la-formation.fr/doc_num.php?explnum_id=19761 (accessed January 24, 2019), pp. 49. We investigated the distribution of hostile sexism (HS) and benevolent sexism (BS) towards women amongst a large sample of Flemish adolescents (N = 952). key words gendered household duties; gender equality and health; gender stereotypes and health. Despite Saudi women standing for office for the first time, the country still has a long journey towards gender equaity Canadian (N = 120), Norwegian (N = 97), Polish (N = 103), and Indian (N = 109) students were asked to evaluate agency and communality of men and women in domestic roles. Thus, for women raised in a society with highly conservative views about sexuality, female sexual satisfaction was a neglected aspect of sex. They call for CSE in line with international standards requiring a comprehensive, scientific, fact-based curriculum grounded in gender equality and human rights and taught by trained educators. hood as a chief prescription in a womanâs life (Russo, gender roles in Asian cultures. Agnieszka Bielecka, associate in the Womenâs Rights Division, provided research assistance and support. The book provides a rich understanding of gender relations and their significance in social and institutional transformations. 34, Article 19, Freedoms of Opinion and Expression, CCPR/C/GC/34 (2011), para. Production was coordinated by Fitzroy Hepkins, administrative manager. â[By making you] see the police in your own doorway.â. Against a backdrop of historic reluctance to grant women full reproductive rights and one of the most restrictive abortion laws in Europe, PiS has worked to further curb reproductive freedom, including through bills that would ban abortion. She said the MOJ now funds Caritas, a Catholic charity, and church-affiliated Family Support Centers to provide services for survivors of violence. Older adults remain sexually active well into later life; yet, there is no consistency in the literature about what sex means to them.  Further backlash arose in Catholic media. , The World Health Organization (WHO), United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO), and Council of Europe Commissioner for Human Rights have all called for universal comprehensive sexuality education (CSE) in schools. âPiS changed the [provincial] heads and now it has become political, so it is hard to get money,â said Joanna Piotrowska, of the womenâs rights group Feminoteka in Warsaw.  On December 31, 2018, the MRPiPS published a proposed amendment that would have redefined domestic violence to exclude the first instance of abuse by a spouse. Publicly condemn attacks on womenâs rights defenders and retrogressive measures impacting womenâs rights. RÃ³wnego Traktowania,â, âWojciech Kaczmarczyk PeÅnomocnikiem RzÄ du do spraw spoÅeczeÅstwa obywatelskiego i RÃ³wnego Traktowania.â, Ustawa z dnia 29 lipca 2005 r. o przeciwdziaÅaniu przemocy w rodzinie (.  Human Rights Watch interview with Sylwia Spurek, August 9, 2018.  Office for Democratic Institutions and Human Rights of the Organization for Security and Cooperation (OSCE/ODIHR), Opinion on the Draft Act of Poland on the National Freedom Institute â Center for the Development of Civil Society, August 22, 2017, http://www.osce.org/odihr/336546 (accessed January 24, 2019). Quantity and quality of, The politics of gender after socialism: A comparative-historical. Zakopane walczy z ustawÄ o przeciwdziaÅaniu przemocy w rodzinie.  UNOCHR, âPoland must not further restrict sexual and reproductive health and rights, say UN experts,â UNOCHR news release, Geneva, March 22, 2018, https://www.ohchr.org/EN/NewsEvents/Pages/DisplayNews.aspx?NewsID=22882&LangID=E (accessed January 24, 2019). Certain life events â such as ending a long-term marriage or engaging in a new romantic relationship â were identified as facilitating this change. GarcÃa, B., & Oliveira, O. Primary school: Preparation for family life), https://www.ore.edu.pl/wp-content/uploads/2017/05/wychowanie-do-zycia-w-rodzinie.-pp-z-komentarzem.-szkola-podstawowa-1.pdf (accessed January 24, 2019), pp. Presently it is possible to observe that some discriminatory practices are assuming new faces. The teachers said the headmistressâherself facing disciplinary action for the photographâpublicly blamed them for harming the schoolâs reputation, questioned their skills and expertise, and turned other employees against them. Moreover, these two forms of sexism were correlated.  Human Rights Watch interview with Agata Teutsch, August 2, 2018; âMiaÅo byÄ zero przemocy â jest zero pieniÄdzy na przeciwdziaÅanie przemocy wobec kobiet i dziewczynek.â.  After gathering over 450,000 signatures, Ordo Iuris and the Stop Abortion committee presented the bill as a âpopular initiative,â which requires 100,000 signatures for parliamentary consideration.  Anna Malinowska, âCzarny protest w zabrzaÅskiej szkole. 78, Item 483 with further amendments), https://www.sejm.gov.pl/prawo/konst/angielski/kon1.htm (accessed January 23, 2019), arts.  Human Rights Watch interview with Joanna Piotrowska, July 31, 2018. Opracowano na podstawie: Dz. It states, for example, that teachers should discuss the advantages of âpre-marital sexual restraintâ and risks associated with masturbation, such as âaddiction to pornography, addiction to sex.â On emergency contraception, it erroneously states: âMorning-after pills are early pregnancy termination drugs because conception occurs in the fallopian tube and not in the uterus.â The guidance note also states that restrictive abortion law forms the basis for the curriculumâs implementation, and emphasizes primacy of the family, which activists say undermines womenâs individual rights. , High-level politicians have publicly reinforced gender stereotypes and traditional gender roles and promoted âthe familyâ above the interests of women. Gender attitudes . See, for example, concluding observations of the Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights (CESCR) on theÂ Republic of Korea, U.N. Doc. , From the beginning of her involvement, Roksana R. said, she kept a low public profile because she worked in a state school. Hold the Plenipotentiary for Civil Society and Equal Treatment accountable for taking meaningful action to fulfill its mandate to oversee and implement equality measures. , The NIW now oversees the Citizenâs Initiatives Fund (Fundusz Inicjatyw Obywatelskich, FIO), which, under oversight of the MRPiPSâs Department of Social Economy and Public Benefit, gave 60 million zÅoty (around $16 million) annually in grants to NGOs, church entities, and religious organizations conducting activities to benefit the public..  CRPD Committee, Concluding observations on the initial report of Poland, CRPD/C/POL/CO/1 (September 2018), paras. This heightens risks for activists. Of the organizations with which Human Rights Watch spoke, all seven that previously received national government support said funding had been discontinued or significantly reduced under the current government. Two activists said their NGOs lost office space because of their affiliation with womenâs rights issues.  It also calls for promotion of these concepts and principles in non-formal educational settings. , Between 2008 and 2016, responsibility for equality issues fell under the Office of the Government Plenipotentiary for Equal Treatment within the Chancellery of the Prime Minister. 12(b). Du Bois — Unsung history of Black leadership in the Civil War era. PiS has also introduced worrying changes to national government funding for civil society initiatives. PodrÃ³Å¼e miÄdzy kobiecoÅciÄ a mÄskoÅciÄ, Herrera, R. S., & DelCampo, R. L. (1995). . Both studies provide evidence for the role of specific terms as reflections of deeper attitudes about the ontological nature of certain beings. http://www.oecd.org/gender/data/OECD_1564_, The disorder of women: Democracy, feminism, and political theory, A feminine look at female objectification: Makeup and self-objectification, sexy. 2017-03-03 16:59 #48  Victimsâ Rights Directive, Ch.  Human Rights Watch telephone interview with Roksana R., September 25, 2018 (name and location withheld). In this article, we analyze how people's preference to use one of the two terms used in the abortion discourse: âfetusâ and âunborn childâ can reveal their attitudes toward abortion and reflect deeper processes of (de)mentalization of the preborn. Although it pertains to use of public funds, the ministry initially refused and then sent only partial documentation, saying some groups had not agreed to information-sharing. , Groups said they now depend primarily on small-scale local government or mayoral office grants and individual contributions.  Chancellery of the Prime Minister of Poland, âRozporzÄ dzenie Rady MinistrÃ³w z dnia 8 stycznia 2016 r. w sprawie ustanowienia PeÅnomocnika RzÄ du do spraw spoÅeczeÅstwa obywatelskiegoâ (âCompetencies for Government Plenipotentiary for Civil Societyâ), January 8, 2016, https://pozytek.gov.pl/wp-content/uploads/2018/08/rozporzadzenie.pdf (accessed January 23, 2019); Anna Dobrowolska, âPiS likwiduje Biuro PeÅnomocnika ds. ity in global culture. 19. Sexism- Sexism, prejudice or discrimination based on sex or gender, especially against women and girls.  In May 2018, a judge issued a mother a suspended sentence of one yearâs imprisonment, to be served on probation, after she pleaded guilty to procuring a medical abortion for her 16-year-old daughter. Five were public employees who said their jobs were threatened, including three teachers and one school headmistress subjected to investigations and disciplinary proceedings.  OdpowiedÅº PeÅnomocnika RzÄ du do spraw SpoÅeczeÅstwa Obywatelskiego i RÃ³wnego Traktowania ws. Still, subjectively positive attitudes might, truth beneficial. âI feel like I experienced the soullessness of a government that just wants to do something to someone and will succeed.â, Agata Teutsch, director of Autonomia, said other schools also face pressure not to allow the groupâs workshops.  European Parliamentary Research Service, âThe Victimsâ Rights Directive 2012/29/EU, European Implementation Assessment,â European Union, December 2017, http://www.europarl.europa.eu/RegData/etudes/STUD/2017/611022/EPRS_STU(2017)611022_EN.pdf (accessed January 24, 2019), p.66. Favorable emotional and behavioral reactions reward members of each sex when they conform to gender-traditional traits, while gender âdeviantsâ are punished. Applied Psychology: An International Review, Revista do Departamento de Psicologia UFF, choices, attitudes, value judgments, and social situations.  Joanna Gierak-Onoszko, âPanie premierze, skÄ d te dane o przemocy w nieformalnych zwiÄ zkach?,â Polityka, January 6, 2018, https://www.polityka.pl/tygodnikpolityka/spoleczenstwo/1733478,1,panie-premierze-skad-te-dane-o-przemocy-w-nieformalnych-zwiazkach.read (accessed January 24, 2019). Psychologia rozwojowa, of developmentâphilosophical and methodological inspirations. Without MOJ support, Durda said, they had to reduce the hotlineâs hours of operation by half, from twelve hours a day to six. 20, paras.  Under Polandâs Act of 5 December 1996, on the professions of doctor and dentist (Doctor and Dentist Professions Act), medical professionals can invoke a âconscience clause,â or so-called conscientious objection, refusing to perform abortion on grounds that it conflicts with personal values or beliefs. Study 1, which utilized a convenience sample of Polish internet users (N = 102), showed that people who used anthropomorphizing language opposed elective abortion more firmly than those using dementalizing language. 65â79).  Though total Justice Fund grants have steadily increased from 15.6 million zÅoty (US $4.1 million) in 2014, activists say funding of specialist womenâs rights groups and service providers is diminishing. âIt was unthinkable that these things were happening at a school under her [leadership].â, Teachers said local authorities made an example of them to deter others from supporting or participating in protests.  It also specifies statesâ obligation to âallocate appropriate financial and human resourcesâ for implementation of policies and programs to prevent and address violence against women, âincluding those carried out by non-governmental organizations and civil society.â, The Istanbul Convention requires provision of both general and specialist support services for women victims of violence, including short-, medium- and long-term shelter, legal assistance, medical and psychosocial care, and housing. They provide fewer counseling services and can no longer offer financial support for food, rent, or education. This research was supported by grant 2011/01/N/HS6/05794 entitled âAmbivalent sexism in, Poland: mechanisms justifying gender inequality,â conferred to the first author by the Polish, National Science Centre and grant 2012/05/HS6/03715 entitled âSocial beliefs about motherhood, and their influence on perception of mothers in the workplaceâ conferred to the second author by.  ECHR, arts. ), Sejm, July 29, 2005, Dz.U. PiS identified âgender ideologyâ as a threat in its 2014 party platform. Keywords Ambivalent sexism . level negative emotions would likely reduce the willingness to engage in, It is also plausible that the beliefs related to the proposed dimensions could be, the family or the community, not women as a group. 36, 37(a).  UN Declaration on Human Rights Defenders, arts.  Human rights Watch interview with Urszula Nowakowska, August 1, 2018. Because BABAâs services are open to all victims of violenceâmen account for approximately five percent of its clients, Motyka saidâthe ministry could not claim discrimination against certain victims of crime as grounds for denial of funding. 14(2).  Her supervisor supported her previous activism, such as work to combat hate speech against women. , Both the HRC and the CEDAW Committee have noted concern about ongoing, extensive, and inappropriate use of the conscience clause, or conscientious objection, by health providers in Poland and lack of timely appeals processes for women who are denied abortions. E/C.12/2000/4 (2000), para. A/HRC/38/46, May 14, 2018, http://undocs.org/en/A/HRC/38/46 (accessed January 23, 2019), para. , The governmentâs most recent National Action Plan for Equal Treatment covered the years 2013 to 2016, and no follow-on plan has been released. Specifically, negative affectivity predicted milder forms of harassment, attitudes predicted factors that are considered more severe, and self-esteem predicted all factors but sexist hostility.  It reaffirms the right to provide and disseminate human rights-related information, and to request, receive, and use resources for the purpose of peaceful promotion and protection of human rights. Therefore, negotiations concerning household and family duties within relationships appear to be an important health-related issue. But the anti-womenâs rights agenda of the PiS government represents a new level of regression. âMany [such organizations] received funding, so the government can still say they are funding anti-violence.â. Government raids on womenâs rights organizationsâ offices following demonstrations in October 2017 marking the Black Protestâs one-year anniversary have contributed to public distrust of womenâs rights groups and increased fear and unease amongst activists, their staff and volunteers, and the public.  CEDAW Committee and CRPD Committee, Guaranteeing sexual and reproductive health and rights for all women, in particular women with disabilities, Joint statement, August 29, 2018, https://www.ohchr.org/Documents/HRBodies/CRPD/Statements/GuaranteeingSexualReproductiveHealth.DOCX (accessed January 24, 2019). Violence ( Istanbul Convention ), BABA has limited its activities to the attainable. And local media identified her as a threat in its 2014 party platform later, womenâs Rights and Protest...: how are gender relations and ideas about gender shaping political and Economic change in the meantime, approval the. 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