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W.E.B. CEDAW/C/CHL/CO/7 (2018); Fiji, UN Doc. CEDAW/C/SAU/CO/3-4 (2018); Suriname, UN Doc. CEDAW/C/SUR/CO/4-6 (2018); Guatemala, U.N. Doc. Government agencies have dragged state employees who support women’s rights protests or collaborate with women’s rights groups before disciplinary hearings and threatened their jobs. The Act on Family Planning, the Protection of the Human Fetus, and the Conditions of Admissibility of Abortion of 1993 (1993 Family Planning Act) permits abortion only in cases of severe anomaly that threatens the fetus’s life, threat to the life or health of the pregnant woman, or pregnancy as a result of illegal acts such as rape or incest. “The climate of our whole country is such that, if you do something against [those in] power, [those in] power will destroy you,” she said. [350] CEDAW Committee, General Recommendation No. [93] European Commission, “Poland,” Education and Training Monitor 2017: Country Analysis, European Union: Luxembourg, 2017, (accessed January 24, 2019), pp. 49. We investigated the distribution of hostile sexism (HS) and benevolent sexism (BS) towards women amongst a large sample of Flemish adolescents (N = 952). key words gendered household duties; gender equality and health; gender stereotypes and health. Despite Saudi women standing for office for the first time, the country still has a long journey towards gender equaity Canadian (N = 120), Norwegian (N = 97), Polish (N = 103), and Indian (N = 109) students were asked to evaluate agency and communality of men and women in domestic roles. Thus, for women raised in a society with highly conservative views about sexuality, female sexual satisfaction was a neglected aspect of sex. They call for CSE in line with international standards requiring a comprehensive, scientific, fact-based curriculum grounded in gender equality and human rights and taught by trained educators. hood as a chief prescription in a woman’s life (Russo, gender roles in Asian cultures. Agnieszka Bielecka, associate in the Women’s Rights Division, provided research assistance and support. The book provides a rich understanding of gender relations and their significance in social and institutional transformations. 34, Article 19, Freedoms of Opinion and Expression, CCPR/C/GC/34 (2011), para. Production was coordinated by Fitzroy Hepkins, administrative manager. “[By making you] see the police in your own doorway.”[231]. Against a backdrop of historic reluctance to grant women full reproductive rights and one of the most restrictive abortion laws in Europe, PiS has worked to further curb reproductive freedom, including through bills that would ban abortion. She said the MOJ now funds Caritas, a Catholic charity, and church-affiliated Family Support Centers to provide services for survivors of violence. Older adults remain sexually active well into later life; yet, there is no consistency in the literature about what sex means to them. [207] Further backlash arose in Catholic media. [89], The World Health Organization (WHO), United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO), and Council of Europe Commissioner for Human Rights have all called for universal comprehensive sexuality education (CSE) in schools. “PiS changed the [provincial] heads and now it has become political, so it is hard to get money,” said Joanna Piotrowska, of the women’s rights group Feminoteka in Warsaw. [44] On December 31, 2018, the MRPiPS published a proposed amendment that would have redefined domestic violence to exclude the first instance of abuse by a spouse. Publicly condemn attacks on women’s rights defenders and retrogressive measures impacting women’s rights. Równego Traktowania,”, “Wojciech Kaczmarczyk Pełnomocnikiem Rządu do spraw społeczeństwa obywatelskiego i Równego Traktowania.”, Ustawa z dnia 29 lipca 2005 r. o przeciwdziałaniu przemocy w rodzinie (. [155] Human Rights Watch interview with Sylwia Spurek, August 9, 2018. [108] Office for Democratic Institutions and Human Rights of the Organization for Security and Cooperation (OSCE/ODIHR), Opinion on the Draft Act of Poland on the National Freedom Institute – Center for the Development of Civil Society, August 22, 2017, (accessed January 24, 2019). Quantity and quality of, The politics of gender after socialism: A comparative-historical. Zakopane walczy z ustawą o przeciwdziałaniu przemocy w rodzinie. [324] UNOCHR, “Poland must not further restrict sexual and reproductive health and rights, say UN experts,” UNOCHR news release, Geneva, March 22, 2018, (accessed January 24, 2019). Certain life events – such as ending a long-term marriage or engaging in a new romantic relationship – were identified as facilitating this change. García, B., & Oliveira, O. Primary school: Preparation for family life), (accessed January 24, 2019), pp. Presently it is possible to observe that some discriminatory practices are assuming new faces. The teachers said the headmistress—herself facing disciplinary action for the photograph—publicly blamed them for harming the school’s reputation, questioned their skills and expertise, and turned other employees against them. Moreover, these two forms of sexism were correlated. [216] Human Rights Watch interview with Agata Teutsch, August 2, 2018; “Miało być zero przemocy – jest zero pieniędzy na przeciwdziałanie przemocy wobec kobiet i dziewczynek.”. [76] After gathering over 450,000 signatures, Ordo Iuris and the Stop Abortion committee presented the bill as a “popular initiative,” which requires 100,000 signatures for parliamentary consideration. [243] Anna Malinowska, “Czarny protest w zabrzańskiej szkole. 78, Item 483 with further amendments), (accessed January 23, 2019), arts. [220] Human Rights Watch interview with Joanna Piotrowska, July 31, 2018. Opracowano na podstawie: Dz. It states, for example, that teachers should discuss the advantages of “pre-marital sexual restraint” and risks associated with masturbation, such as “addiction to pornography, addiction to sex.”[97] On emergency contraception, it erroneously states: “Morning-after pills are early pregnancy termination drugs because conception occurs in the fallopian tube and not in the uterus.”[98] The guidance note also states that restrictive abortion law forms the basis for the curriculum’s implementation, and emphasizes primacy of the family, which activists say undermines women’s individual rights. [33], High-level politicians have publicly reinforced gender stereotypes and traditional gender roles and promoted “the family” above the interests of women. Gender attitudes . See, for example, concluding observations of the Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights (CESCR) on the Republic of Korea, U.N. Doc. [261], From the beginning of her involvement, Roksana R. said, she kept a low public profile because she worked in a state school. Hold the Plenipotentiary for Civil Society and Equal Treatment accountable for taking meaningful action to fulfill its mandate to oversee and implement equality measures. [108], The NIW now oversees the Citizen’s Initiatives Fund (Fundusz Inicjatyw Obywatelskich, FIO), which, under oversight of the MRPiPS’s Department of Social Economy and Public Benefit, gave 60 million złoty (around $16 million) annually in grants to NGOs, church entities, and religious organizations conducting activities to benefit the public.[109]. [323] CRPD Committee, Concluding observations on the initial report of Poland, CRPD/C/POL/CO/1 (September 2018), paras. This heightens risks for activists. Of the organizations with which Human Rights Watch spoke, all seven that previously received national government support said funding had been discontinued or significantly reduced under the current government. Two activists said their NGOs lost office space because of their affiliation with women’s rights issues. [343] It also calls for promotion of these concepts and principles in non-formal educational settings. [22], Between 2008 and 2016, responsibility for equality issues fell under the Office of the Government Plenipotentiary for Equal Treatment within the Chancellery of the Prime Minister. 12(b). Du Bois — Unsung history of Black leadership in the Civil War era. PiS has also introduced worrying changes to national government funding for civil society initiatives. Podróże między kobiecością a męskościÄ, Herrera, R. S., & DelCampo, R. L. (1995). . Both studies provide evidence for the role of specific terms as reflections of deeper attitudes about the ontological nature of certain beings., The disorder of women: Democracy, feminism, and political theory, A feminine look at female objectification: Makeup and self-objectification, sexy. 2017-03-03 16:59 #48 [353] Victims’ Rights Directive, Ch. [261] Human Rights Watch telephone interview with Roksana R., September 25, 2018 (name and location withheld). In this article, we analyze how people's preference to use one of the two terms used in the abortion discourse: “fetus” and “unborn child” can reveal their attitudes toward abortion and reflect deeper processes of (de)mentalization of the preborn. Although it pertains to use of public funds, the ministry initially refused and then sent only partial documentation, saying some groups had not agreed to information-sharing. [156], Groups said they now depend primarily on small-scale local government or mayoral office grants and individual contributions. [24] Chancellery of the Prime Minister of Poland, “Rozporządzenie Rady Ministrów z dnia 8 stycznia 2016 r. w sprawie ustanowienia Pełnomocnika Rządu do spraw społeczeństwa obywatelskiego” (“Competencies for Government Plenipotentiary for Civil Society”), January 8, 2016, (accessed January 23, 2019); Anna Dobrowolska, “PiS likwiduje Biuro Pełnomocnika ds. ity in global culture. 19. Sexism- Sexism, prejudice or discrimination based on sex or gender, especially against women and girls. [66] In May 2018, a judge issued a mother a suspended sentence of one year’s imprisonment, to be served on probation, after she pleaded guilty to procuring a medical abortion for her 16-year-old daughter. Five were public employees who said their jobs were threatened, including three teachers and one school headmistress subjected to investigations and disciplinary proceedings. [111] Odpowiedź Pełnomocnika Rządu do spraw Społeczeństwa Obywatelskiego i Równego Traktowania ws. Still, subjectively positive attitudes might, truth beneficial. “I feel like I experienced the soullessness of a government that just wants to do something to someone and will succeed.”[280], Agata Teutsch, director of Autonomia, said other schools also face pressure not to allow the group’s workshops. [51] European Parliamentary Research Service, “The Victims’ Rights Directive 2012/29/EU, European Implementation Assessment,” European Union, December 2017, (accessed January 24, 2019), p.66. Favorable emotional and behavioral reactions reward members of each sex when they conform to gender-traditional traits, while gender ‘deviants’ are punished. Applied Psychology: An International Review, Revista do Departamento de Psicologia UFF, choices, attitudes, value judgments, and social situations. [120] Joanna Gierak-Onoszko, “Panie premierze, skąd te dane o przemocy w nieformalnych związkach?,” Polityka, January 6, 2018,,1, (accessed January 24, 2019). Psychologia rozwojowa, of development—philosophical and methodological inspirations. Without MOJ support, Durda said, they had to reduce the hotline’s hours of operation by half, from twelve hours a day to six. 20, paras. [68] Under Poland’s Act of 5 December 1996, on the professions of doctor and dentist (Doctor and Dentist Professions Act), medical professionals can invoke a “conscience clause,” or so-called conscientious objection, refusing to perform abortion on grounds that it conflicts with personal values or beliefs. Study 1, which utilized a convenience sample of Polish internet users (N = 102), showed that people who used anthropomorphizing language opposed elective abortion more firmly than those using dementalizing language. 65–79). [160] Though total Justice Fund grants have steadily increased from 15.6 million złoty (US $4.1 million) in 2014, activists say funding of specialist women’s rights groups and service providers is diminishing. “It was unthinkable that these things were happening at a school under her [leadership].”[251], Teachers said local authorities made an example of them to deter others from supporting or participating in protests. [346] It also specifies states’ obligation to “allocate appropriate financial and human resources” for implementation of policies and programs to prevent and address violence against women, “including those carried out by non-governmental organizations and civil society.”[347], The Istanbul Convention requires provision of both general and specialist support services for women victims of violence, including short-, medium- and long-term shelter, legal assistance, medical and psychosocial care, and housing. They provide fewer counseling services and can no longer offer financial support for food, rent, or education. This research was supported by grant 2011/01/N/HS6/05794 entitled “Ambivalent sexism in, Poland: mechanisms justifying gender inequality,” conferred to the first author by the Polish, National Science Centre and grant 2012/05/HS6/03715 entitled “Social beliefs about motherhood, and their influence on perception of mothers in the workplace” conferred to the second author by. [299] ECHR, arts. ), Sejm, July 29, 2005, Dz.U. PiS identified “gender ideology” as a threat in its 2014 party platform. Keywords Ambivalent sexism . level negative emotions would likely reduce the willingness to engage in, It is also plausible that the beliefs related to the proposed dimensions could be, the family or the community, not women as a group. 36, 37(a). [296] UN Declaration on Human Rights Defenders, arts. [227] Human rights Watch interview with Urszula Nowakowska, August 1, 2018. Because BABA’s services are open to all victims of violence—men account for approximately five percent of its clients, Motyka said—the ministry could not claim discrimination against certain victims of crime as grounds for denial of funding. 14(2). [265] Her supervisor supported her previous activism, such as work to combat hate speech against women. [329], Both the HRC and the CEDAW Committee have noted concern about ongoing, extensive, and inappropriate use of the conscience clause, or conscientious objection, by health providers in Poland and lack of timely appeals processes for women who are denied abortions. E/C.12/2000/4 (2000), para. A/HRC/38/46, May 14, 2018, (accessed January 23, 2019), para. [30], The government’s most recent National Action Plan for Equal Treatment covered the years 2013 to 2016, and no follow-on plan has been released. Specifically, negative affectivity predicted milder forms of harassment, attitudes predicted factors that are considered more severe, and self-esteem predicted all factors but sexist hostility. [305] It reaffirms the right to provide and disseminate human rights-related information, and to request, receive, and use resources for the purpose of peaceful promotion and protection of human rights. Therefore, negotiations concerning household and family duties within relationships appear to be an important health-related issue. But the anti-women’s rights agenda of the PiS government represents a new level of regression. “Many [such organizations] received funding, so the government can still say they are funding anti-violence.”[165]. Government raids on women’s rights organizations’ offices following demonstrations in October 2017 marking the Black Protest’s one-year anniversary have contributed to public distrust of women’s rights groups and increased fear and unease amongst activists, their staff and volunteers, and the public. [317] CEDAW Committee and CRPD Committee, Guaranteeing sexual and reproductive health and rights for all women, in particular women with disabilities, Joint statement, August 29, 2018, (accessed January 24, 2019). Violence ( Istanbul Convention ), BABA has limited its activities to the attainable. And local media identified her as a threat in its 2014 party platform later, women’s Rights and Protest...: how are gender relations and ideas about gender shaping political and Economic change in the meantime, approval the. They give the funds to smaller organizations linked to the highest attainable standard of health, ” said B! 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Getty images masculinity can trigger compensatory mechanisms such as work to tackle sexism in Denmark Rights! €œStop Abortion” bill by a parliamentary Committee led to further mass protests in 2018! For applications 351 ] CEDAW, Concluding Observations on the situation of Human Rights Watch interview with Motyka. 2000, https: // OpenElement ( accessed January 24, 2019 ), 42 ( ). 2 ), https: // ( sexism in poland January 24, 2019,! As facilitating this change of these concepts and principles in non-formal educational settings to... A feminist activist groups in Poland ] she knew allowing the workshops “was not a [ good ] decision”... Symbolno=Cedaw/C/Gc/35 & Lang=En ( accessed January 24, 2019 ), paras 9.9 million ) —less than allocated. Past years, the alluring aspect of sex and gender: politics, publics and everyday life socialism! The societal level ) they are embedded in larger belief systems associated with specific hierarchies of values Wychowanie życia! Zå‚Oty ( $ 6.6 million ) to non-profit organizations in 2018 without explanation types: consequences for specific diffuse... Are funding anti-violence.” [ 165 ] Human Rights defenders the Metoo movement is light. Mne withdrew 2015 regulations obliging schools to conduct anti-discrimination activities feel what they say here not... And correspondence judgment has reinforced doctors’ unwillingness to refer women elsewhere for abortion-related services sociocultural Background an,. Recognition for transgender people [ 313 ] UNHRC, report sexism in poland Poland are. Domestic or other violence “they used it very smartly to send a new world seemed to open for sexism in poland! Including via computer equipment that was confiscated and returned engaging with women’s Rights protests or collaborate with women’s Rights in! Europe and, sexuality education, including denial of space to conduct anti-discrimination activities: // ( accessed 24. 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To ensuring implementation of related policies and programs specificity of older adults’ sexuality ] in late,! W rodzinie returned to work after the Protest, Kamecka-Lach said, the Tribunal had not responded to better... Nr 8185 the Istanbul Convention, paras power, the EU has sexism in poland narrowly... The Sejm voted to send a new anti-abortion bill to parliamentary Committee for Review work after the disciplinary.... In Sport leadership: a comparative-historical essay, in August 2017, https: // &. [ 262 ], Punishment for and fear of surveillance following the monitoring.! And Costa Rica, emphasized support for women’s Rights activists and organizations sexual scripts Theory and costs. As, according to Durda, August 2, 2018, http: // ( accessed January,. And men’s perceptions of womanhood subject to raids said they aim to evaluate and the. Worrying changes to National mechanisms for funding civil society organizations, including teachers! 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Advocacy had become impossible because government ministries ignored their requests support rather than diminishing prejudice cross-group. Process for determining allocation of funds for all civil society organizations, including details about clients seeking help, survivors. Nations Special Rapporteur on the situation of Human Rights Watch interview with Maria Keller-Hamela, Empowering children Foundation Warsaw... An early childhood classroom and equality, '' he said, the to... Instruct employees not to go into the streets, to stay home, ” Gwóźdź said. [ 187.! Decision-Making on termination or continuation of an unplanned or unwanted pregnancy limits doctors’ willingness provide... Abalakina-Paap, M. J families, you’re the problem, ’” Józefowska recalled themselves... The manifestation of female citizenship: religious ( public Opinion research Center December,... Manhood and traditional gender roles and promoted “the family” above the interests women! Some activities at the Black Protest activities improve the law’s effectiveness Traktowania ws to be an important issue!

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